Thailand Area, Peoples, and Impressive Economic
Thailand is one country in Southeast Asia. The land area of Thailand is 513 Km2 which is divided into 6 regions with a total of 76 provinces. Each region in Thailand has different topography. The northern region of Thailand is a hill and mountainous area with several rivers. Northeast Region is a plateau area that has wind speed around of 5-6 m/s. The central region is a lowland area. The southeast region is a mountainous area, and the southern region is the intersection area between the Andama Strait and South China Sea. Thailand has a population of 68 million with 52% living in urban areas and 48% living in rural areas. The level of urbanization in Thailand is predicted to continue to increase until 2020 due to the demand for labour in urban areas. At present, Thailand’s economy is relatively stable with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of around USD455 Billion with an economic growth of 3.9%. The main sector supporting the Thai economy is the automotive
industry with a contribution of 30% to GDP.
Energy Supply and Demand
in 2017, energy consumption in Thailand reaches 103 million oil of equivalent tonnes (MTOE), while the production reaches 82 million oil of equivalent tonnes (MTOE). The government imports energy to meet energy demand Thailand still depending on fossil fuels, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. Coal reserves in Thailand are around 1063 million tonnes, spare gas around 7.3 trillion standard cubic feet, and proven oil reserves of around 400 million barrels.
Thailand has abundant of renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind, solar, geothermal and bioenergy. In 2017, the total install capacity of renewable energy in Thailand was 11.1 GW. The potential of hydropower in Thailand is around 30 GW, the potential for angina is around 13 GW, and the potential for solar energy is 20 GW. The government has set up a renewable energy development scheme in the Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2015). In the 2015 AEDP, the government has also established a merit order scheme where the main priority of the electricity grid from renewable energy is waste to energy and biomass source.
The Thai government is targeted to reduce energy intensity by 25% by 2030 or equivalent to 30,000 KTOE. The main focus of priority is the transportation sector and the industrial sector. To realize the program, the government implemented several policies, including:
In transport sector:
â€¢ Build the “Park and Ride” area in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region
â€¢ Establish integrated transportation between MRT and Bus Rapid Transit in Bangkok and Chiangmai
â€¢ Develop the use of ethanol by applying subsidies for ethanol fuel
â€¢ Developing electricity vehicles by targeting 1.2 million electric vehicles and 690 charging stations by 2036.
In Industrial sector:
â€¢ The government provides subsidy rates to companies that use energy efficiency technology.
â€¢ The government also provides tax incentives to companies that implement energy efficiency in Residential and Commercial Sector
In Residential and Commercial sector:
â€¢ The government applies labelling policies for household products with level 1-5. Level 1 shows energy-saving products, while 5 m shows products that are not energy efficient
â€¢ The government also gives awards to commercial buildings that have a high level of energy efficiency.